Hacking laws, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act






The main hacking laws are in the US Computer Fraud and Abuse Act passed in 1986 and has undergone several amendments.


Based on the history of hacking, computer problems caused as a result of hacking were continuously increasing and like recent times ethical hacking became unpopular because of the notoriety of black hats. What do you think? If these laws weren't there, ha! Imagine what would have been happening. I like the efforts of the US government on hacking.

Hacking laws according to the US laws(Computer Fraud and Abuse Act) states,

(a) Whoever--

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    1. having knowingly accessed a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access, and by means of such conduct having obtained information that has been determined by the United States Government pursuant to an Executive order or statute to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national defense or foreign relations, or any restricted data, as defined in paragraph y of section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with reason to believe that such information so obtained could be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, willfully communicates, delivers, transmits, or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted, or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it;

    hacking law 2

    2. intentionally accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and thereby obtains--

      A. information contained in a financial record of a financial institution, or of a card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) of title 15, or contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on a consumer, as such terms are defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);

      B. information from any department or agency of the United States; or

      C. information from any protected computer if the conduct involved an interstate or foreign communication;

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    3. intentionally, without authorization to access any nonpublic computer of a department or agency of the United States, accesses such a computer of that department or agency that is exclusively for the use of the Government of the United States or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, is used by or for the Government of the United States and such conduct affects that use by or for the Government of the United States;

    hacking law 4

    4. knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a protected computer without authorization, or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct furthers the intended fraud and obtains anything of value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer and the value of such use is not more than $5,000 in any 1-year period;

      A. knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command, and as a result of such conduct, intentionally causes damage without authorization, to a protected computer;

      B. intentionally accesses a protected computer without authorization, and as a result of such conduct, recklessly causes damage; or

      C. intentionally accesses a protected computer without authorization, and as a result of such conduct, causes damage;

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    5. knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics (as defined in section 1029) in any password or similar information through which a computer may be accessed without authorization, if--

    a)trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce; or such computer is used by or for the Government of the United States; with intent to extort from any person, firm, association, educational institution, financial institution, government entity, or other legal entity, any money or other thing of value, transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to cause damage to a protected computer; shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section. (b) Whoever attempts to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section. (c) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) or (b) of this section is--

      A. a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

      B. a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

        (A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(5)(C), or (a)(6) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

        i. the offense was committed for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain;ii. the offense was committed in furtherance of any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State; oriii. the value of the information obtained exceeds $5,000;

        (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), if--

        (C) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

        (A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4), (a)(5)(A), (a)(5)(B), or (a)(7) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4), (a)(5)(A), (a)(5)(B), (a)(5)(C), or (a)(7)of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and [former paragraph (4) stricken effective Oct. 11, 1996].

        The United States Secret Service shall, in addition to any other agency having such authority, have the authority to investigate offenses under subsections (a)(2)(A), (a)(2)(B), (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), and (a)(6) of this section. Such authority of the United States Secret Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General."


These hacking laws are not only for the US, but are also for the whole world since, the internet is globally connected and affects everyone on the globe.

hacking laws from other countries ought to be respected as well as the US laws, but as I explained earlier, the best computer fraud laws to know are that of the US because of popularity and many other reasons. Ethical hacking on the other hand is mostly carried out in a manner in which these laws won't be bent or broken. Computer problems associated with intrusion are mostly caused by black hat hackers

Based on these computer fraud laws, hacking can be a crime when, you access your friend or family member's computer with the intentions of defrauding him. Since no damage is caused nor the computer being hacked is a government property, its legal. ?????

Most people do not think of these hacking laws like that. The media and Hollywood portrays hacking as any access you make into a persons computer. Most hacking, especially ethical hacking, can not be classified as criminal acts but rather as problem solving





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How website building pay my bills

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How do I pay my bills by only providing information without hacking.

Come to think of it, I pay webhosting fee, sit on the computer adding content to my site and a lot of other activities.

Look at it this way, facebook, myspace, twitter, yahoo are trying to get better by the minute.

why....?

They earn from the information and services they provide. How is that possible….?


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